Betta Fish Disease Treatment

In the article below, I have talked about the possible causes and the best treatments for the most common Betta Fish sicknesses.

One of the most common mistakes you can make when treating the fish is inaccurately determining the appropriate dose. It is vital that you know how much water is in your fish tank so you can provide the exact amount of medicine.

Betta Illness – Fungus Infection
Fungus is easily preventable by using either aquarium salt or Aquarisol to your tank regularly. While fungus is contagious to your other fish, your Betta will recover if you begin treatment in the early stages. Make sure to thoroughly clean the entire fish tank completely once the Betta is cured.

The best treatment is to administer Fungus Eliminator and BettaZing at the same time – this will get rid of virtually any kind of fungus infections. You must administer approximately forty grains of Fungus Eliminator for every half gallon of water. With BettaZing you are required to administer eight drops per gallon. You usually can purchase both of these items at your nearby pet store, or order them on the internet.

Betta Disease – Ick
Ick is another highly contagious illness that is easily prevented by adding Aquarisol and/or Aquarium salt to your water regularly. Since Ick is very contagious it’s safest to safeguard the whole fish tank, not just your Betta.

Ick is extremely sensitive to temperature, so if you use a heater, raise the temperature of the tank to 85 Fahrenheit. Add a single drop of Aquarisol for each gallon of water. Do this daily until one or two days after your fish are recovered. It won’t take more than three to five days to heal your Betta fish.

Betta Fish Disease – Tail or Fin Rot
Fin rot usually comes from filthy water or a filthy fish tank. If you keep your Betta’s water really clean, he should never be stricken with Fin Rot. The good news is it’s not contagious and is easily curable. Usually|While|Generally] the lost parts of tail and/or fin will regenerate, they may alter color or grow back a little shorter than the original.

Maracyn I and II combined at the same time will usually get rid of early stages of Fin Rot. These medications are easy to find at most local pet shops. Prior to depositing in your fish tank, the tablets must be thoroughly crushed. Deposit half the required amount of the two meds. Make sure not to go overboard! Every full tablet is good for a 10 gallon fish tank, so if you own a 5 gallon fish tank, use one fourth of each medicine (not half!).

You could need something more powerful if the Fin rot is in the advanced stages. You should administer Tetracycline or Ampicillin. These medications are harder to find. Try a big pet store or order them on the internet.

With any treatment, it can be as much as four weeks before the fins or tail stop receding and begin to grow back, so be vigilant and don’t get discouraged! You can stop administering the meds once you see your Betta fish’s tail and/or fins begin to grow back.

Betta Fish Disease – Velvet
Velvet is the number one killer of Betta fries:(~The number one killer of Betta fries is the parasite Velvet.} Typically if you add Aquarisol your Betta will not be exposed to this parasite. Although quarantine your Betta and administer meds to him separately, you should also treat the rest of your fish tank because Velvet is extremely contageous. Be certain to clean your fish net and all other tools in or near the tank. Place the tank in a dark location, and administer 12 drops of BettaZing for each gallon of water.

Betta Illness – Popeye
Popeye is a bacterial infection that comes from by dirty water. Your Betta Fish will generally make a full recovery, but it is possible your Betta loses his eye if you discover it too late. To treat Popeye, it’s important to make sure the tank water is super clean. Change the water every three days. The antibiotic Ampicillin will work wonders, but is challenging to use with small tanks since it comes in a capsule that works for a 10 gallon tank. Continue using the drug Ampicillin until one week to ten days after the Popeye has disappeared.

Betta Fish Illness – Dropsy
Dropsy is thought to come from giving your Betta contaminated live food, for instance, black worms. The bacteria that spreads Dropsy is contageous so make sure to separate your sick Betta fish. There is unfortunately no cure, but sometimes with a very mild case your Betta may heal on his own.

Betta Fish Illness – Tuberculoses
Tuberculoses is thought to originate from dirty live foods. It could be as long as six months before your Betta displays any signs of infection. Unfortunately, not only is there no known cure, but it is extremely spreadable, lethal to almost all other sea life, and difficult to get rid of. Even bleach cannot sanitize against it. You will most likely have to get rid of your bowl, tank, net and all other gear.

Jason Andrews is a Betta Fish enthusiast who has collected and bred Bettas for over 20 years. He currently is caring for several different varieties, and is attempting to breed the perfect halfmoon Betta. Make sure to read his blog for information on Betta Fish Mating and the best ways to care for your Betta.

Average Serum Half Life Of Antimicrobial Agents And Choice Of Antibiotics For Common Infections

Antibiotics or antimicrobial agents can have specific and different functions. Hence, their specificity in administration in patients is very important and vital in drug therapy. Based on Wikipedia, Serum half life of a drug, or also The biological half-life or elimination half life of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (for example a metabolite, drug,signalling molecule, radioactive nuclide, or other substance) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity. Here are some antimicrobial agents and their serum half Life in different routes of administration.

In order of the routes of administration, the first is oral, the second is intramuscular and the third is intravenous, all in hours.
1. Benzyl penicillin: 4.0, 0.5, 0.15
2. Phenoxymethyl penicillin: 2.0, _, _
3. Procaine penicillin: _, 18.0, _
4. Ampicillin: 5.0, 4.0, 1.5
5. Erythromycin (appropriate preparation): 3.0, 2.5, 1.0
6. Tetracycline: 8.5, _, 8.5
7. Doxycycline: 20.0, _, 18.0
8. Chloramphenicol: 3.5, 6.0, 3.5
9. Rifampicin: 3.3, _, 3.3
10. Trimethoprim: 12.0, _, 10.0
11. Sifamethoxazole: 12.0, _, 10.0

Choice of antibiotics for common infections

Here are some drugs which are the best choices to their corresponding diseases stated here. The first drug indicates the proven value (conventional antibiotics) while the second drug indicates the possible value of cephalosporins.

Respiratory tract infections

1. Pharyngitis: Benzylpenicillin, Cephradine
2. Otitis media: Amoxycillin, Cefaclor
3. Necrotising otitis: Ticarcillin, Cefsulodin, Cefrazidime
4. Pneumonia (Streptococcus Pneumonia): Benzylpenicillin, First generation cephalosporins
5. H. influenzae: Ampicillin, (cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cephamandole)
6. Staphylococcus aureus: (Nafcillin, cloxacillin) (cephalothin, cefazolin)
7. Klebsiella: Cefazolin, (cefotaxime, moxalactam)
8. Pseudomonas: Ticarcillin, ceftazidime
9. Anaerobic organisms: (penicillin, clindamycin); (cefoxitin, moxalactam)

urinary tract infections

1. Domiciliary: Ampicillin
2. Hospital-acquired entero-bacteriaceae: Aminoglycosides, (cefotaxime, moxalactam)
3. Pseudomonas: Aminoglycosides, ceftazidime

Meningitis

1. Neonatal: (Ampicillin, gentamicin), (Cefotaxime, moxalactam + ampicillin)
2. Strptococcal Pneumoniae: Benzylpenicillin, Cefotaxime
3. N. Meningitidis: benzylpenicillin, cefotaxime
4. H. Influenzae: (ampicilin, chloramphenicol), (Cefotaxime, moxalactam)
5. Enterobacteriaceae: Aminoglycosides, (Cefotaxime, moxalactam)

Bone and Joint infections

1. Stapjylococcus aureus: (Nafcillin, cloxacillin), cefazolin
2. Enterobacteriaceae: Aminoglycoside, (Cefotaxime, moxalactam)
3. Pseudomonas: (Ticarcillin + aminoglycosides), (Cefsulodin, Ceftazidime)

Diarrhoeal diseases

1. Shigella, salmonella and campylobacter: Ampicillin, None

Gynaecological infections

1. Endometritis, salpingitis: (Clindamycin + gentamicin), (Cefoxitin, cefotaxime, moxalactam)

sexually transmitted diseases

1. Gonorrhoea: Penicillin, (Cefoxitin, Cefotaxime)
2. Intra abdominal infections: (Clindamycin + gentamicin), (cefoxitin, cefotaxime, moxalactam)

septicemia

1. Home acquired: (Ampicillin + aminoglycosides, Ticarcillin + aminoglycosides), Moxalactam.

In most cases a combined drug therapy is for efficiency of drug to fighting the organisms involved. And also, the group of drugs in one bracket indicates drugs for a particular value. Just as stated earlier, the first value is for the proven values (conventional antibiotics) and hence, if the bracket is the first, then the drugs represents the conventional antibiotics best for that particular disease. But if the bracket is the second, then the drugs in it represent the possible value of cephalosporins.

According to Wikipedia, Cephalosporins are a class of ²-lactam antibiotics originally derived from Acremonium, which was previously known as “Cephalosporium”.
Together with cephamycins they constitute a subgroup of ²-lactam antibiotics called cephems.

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