Betta Fish Disease Treatment

In the article below, I have talked about the possible causes and the best treatments for the most common Betta Fish sicknesses.

One of the most common mistakes you can make when treating the fish is inaccurately determining the appropriate dose. It is vital that you know how much water is in your fish tank so you can provide the exact amount of medicine.

Betta Illness – Fungus Infection
Fungus is easily preventable by using either aquarium salt or Aquarisol to your tank regularly. While fungus is contagious to your other fish, your Betta will recover if you begin treatment in the early stages. Make sure to thoroughly clean the entire fish tank completely once the Betta is cured.

The best treatment is to administer Fungus Eliminator and BettaZing at the same time – this will get rid of virtually any kind of fungus infections. You must administer approximately forty grains of Fungus Eliminator for every half gallon of water. With BettaZing you are required to administer eight drops per gallon. You usually can purchase both of these items at your nearby pet store, or order them on the internet.

Betta Disease – Ick
Ick is another highly contagious illness that is easily prevented by adding Aquarisol and/or Aquarium salt to your water regularly. Since Ick is very contagious it’s safest to safeguard the whole fish tank, not just your Betta.

Ick is extremely sensitive to temperature, so if you use a heater, raise the temperature of the tank to 85 Fahrenheit. Add a single drop of Aquarisol for each gallon of water. Do this daily until one or two days after your fish are recovered. It won’t take more than three to five days to heal your Betta fish.

Betta Fish Disease – Tail or Fin Rot
Fin rot usually comes from filthy water or a filthy fish tank. If you keep your Betta’s water really clean, he should never be stricken with Fin Rot. The good news is it’s not contagious and is easily curable. Usually|While|Generally] the lost parts of tail and/or fin will regenerate, they may alter color or grow back a little shorter than the original.

Maracyn I and II combined at the same time will usually get rid of early stages of Fin Rot. These medications are easy to find at most local pet shops. Prior to depositing in your fish tank, the tablets must be thoroughly crushed. Deposit half the required amount of the two meds. Make sure not to go overboard! Every full tablet is good for a 10 gallon fish tank, so if you own a 5 gallon fish tank, use one fourth of each medicine (not half!).

You could need something more powerful if the Fin rot is in the advanced stages. You should administer Tetracycline or Ampicillin. These medications are harder to find. Try a big pet store or order them on the internet.

With any treatment, it can be as much as four weeks before the fins or tail stop receding and begin to grow back, so be vigilant and don’t get discouraged! You can stop administering the meds once you see your Betta fish’s tail and/or fins begin to grow back.

Betta Fish Disease – Velvet
Velvet is the number one killer of Betta fries:(~The number one killer of Betta fries is the parasite Velvet.} Typically if you add Aquarisol your Betta will not be exposed to this parasite. Although quarantine your Betta and administer meds to him separately, you should also treat the rest of your fish tank because Velvet is extremely contageous. Be certain to clean your fish net and all other tools in or near the tank. Place the tank in a dark location, and administer 12 drops of BettaZing for each gallon of water.

Betta Illness – Popeye
Popeye is a bacterial infection that comes from by dirty water. Your Betta Fish will generally make a full recovery, but it is possible your Betta loses his eye if you discover it too late. To treat Popeye, it’s important to make sure the tank water is super clean. Change the water every three days. The antibiotic Ampicillin will work wonders, but is challenging to use with small tanks since it comes in a capsule that works for a 10 gallon tank. Continue using the drug Ampicillin until one week to ten days after the Popeye has disappeared.

Betta Fish Illness – Dropsy
Dropsy is thought to come from giving your Betta contaminated live food, for instance, black worms. The bacteria that spreads Dropsy is contageous so make sure to separate your sick Betta fish. There is unfortunately no cure, but sometimes with a very mild case your Betta may heal on his own.

Betta Fish Illness – Tuberculoses
Tuberculoses is thought to originate from dirty live foods. It could be as long as six months before your Betta displays any signs of infection. Unfortunately, not only is there no known cure, but it is extremely spreadable, lethal to almost all other sea life, and difficult to get rid of. Even bleach cannot sanitize against it. You will most likely have to get rid of your bowl, tank, net and all other gear.

Jason Andrews is a Betta Fish enthusiast who has collected and bred Bettas for over 20 years. He currently is caring for several different varieties, and is attempting to breed the perfect halfmoon Betta. Make sure to read his blog for information on Betta Fish Mating and the best ways to care for your Betta.

Average Serum Half Life Of Antimicrobial Agents And Choice Of Antibiotics For Common Infections

Antibiotics or antimicrobial agents can have specific and different functions. Hence, their specificity in administration in patients is very important and vital in drug therapy. Based on Wikipedia, Serum half life of a drug, or also The biological half-life or elimination half life of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (for example a metabolite, drug,signalling molecule, radioactive nuclide, or other substance) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity. Here are some antimicrobial agents and their serum half Life in different routes of administration.

In order of the routes of administration, the first is oral, the second is intramuscular and the third is intravenous, all in hours.
1. Benzyl penicillin: 4.0, 0.5, 0.15
2. Phenoxymethyl penicillin: 2.0, _, _
3. Procaine penicillin: _, 18.0, _
4. Ampicillin: 5.0, 4.0, 1.5
5. Erythromycin (appropriate preparation): 3.0, 2.5, 1.0
6. Tetracycline: 8.5, _, 8.5
7. Doxycycline: 20.0, _, 18.0
8. Chloramphenicol: 3.5, 6.0, 3.5
9. Rifampicin: 3.3, _, 3.3
10. Trimethoprim: 12.0, _, 10.0
11. Sifamethoxazole: 12.0, _, 10.0

Choice of antibiotics for common infections

Here are some drugs which are the best choices to their corresponding diseases stated here. The first drug indicates the proven value (conventional antibiotics) while the second drug indicates the possible value of cephalosporins.

Respiratory tract infections

1. Pharyngitis: Benzylpenicillin, Cephradine
2. Otitis media: Amoxycillin, Cefaclor
3. Necrotising otitis: Ticarcillin, Cefsulodin, Cefrazidime
4. Pneumonia (Streptococcus Pneumonia): Benzylpenicillin, First generation cephalosporins
5. H. influenzae: Ampicillin, (cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cephamandole)
6. Staphylococcus aureus: (Nafcillin, cloxacillin) (cephalothin, cefazolin)
7. Klebsiella: Cefazolin, (cefotaxime, moxalactam)
8. Pseudomonas: Ticarcillin, ceftazidime
9. Anaerobic organisms: (penicillin, clindamycin); (cefoxitin, moxalactam)

urinary tract infections

1. Domiciliary: Ampicillin
2. Hospital-acquired entero-bacteriaceae: Aminoglycosides, (cefotaxime, moxalactam)
3. Pseudomonas: Aminoglycosides, ceftazidime


1. Neonatal: (Ampicillin, gentamicin), (Cefotaxime, moxalactam + ampicillin)
2. Strptococcal Pneumoniae: Benzylpenicillin, Cefotaxime
3. N. Meningitidis: benzylpenicillin, cefotaxime
4. H. Influenzae: (ampicilin, chloramphenicol), (Cefotaxime, moxalactam)
5. Enterobacteriaceae: Aminoglycosides, (Cefotaxime, moxalactam)

Bone and Joint infections

1. Stapjylococcus aureus: (Nafcillin, cloxacillin), cefazolin
2. Enterobacteriaceae: Aminoglycoside, (Cefotaxime, moxalactam)
3. Pseudomonas: (Ticarcillin + aminoglycosides), (Cefsulodin, Ceftazidime)

Diarrhoeal diseases

1. Shigella, salmonella and campylobacter: Ampicillin, None

Gynaecological infections

1. Endometritis, salpingitis: (Clindamycin + gentamicin), (Cefoxitin, cefotaxime, moxalactam)

sexually transmitted diseases

1. Gonorrhoea: Penicillin, (Cefoxitin, Cefotaxime)
2. Intra abdominal infections: (Clindamycin + gentamicin), (cefoxitin, cefotaxime, moxalactam)


1. Home acquired: (Ampicillin + aminoglycosides, Ticarcillin + aminoglycosides), Moxalactam.

In most cases a combined drug therapy is for efficiency of drug to fighting the organisms involved. And also, the group of drugs in one bracket indicates drugs for a particular value. Just as stated earlier, the first value is for the proven values (conventional antibiotics) and hence, if the bracket is the first, then the drugs represents the conventional antibiotics best for that particular disease. But if the bracket is the second, then the drugs in it represent the possible value of cephalosporins.

According to Wikipedia, Cephalosporins are a class of ²-lactam antibiotics originally derived from Acremonium, which was previously known as “Cephalosporium”.
Together with cephamycins they constitute a subgroup of ²-lactam antibiotics called cephems.

Drug Abuse and Addition

The world today has become surrounded by drug abuse as well as drug addiction. This escalating disorder has become so common, that its truth is based on misconceptions that people have concerning drug abuse as well as addiction. This paper briefly provides an overview of drug abuse as well as addiction, and at the same time looks at the aspects of epidemiology, social problems, pathophysiology, as well as ethical issues that might arise with medical emergency responders.

Drug abuse and drug addiction; exactly what does that mean and who is affected by it? There is a confusion between drug addiction and abuse. Drug abuse happens when there is usage of a substance, generally illicit drugs or alcohol, while drug addiction takes place in a broad variety of substances and activities. Addiction can be termed as the compulsive need for usage of substance forming habits, such as alcohol, nicotine and heroin, of which is eventually characterized by obviously physiological signs upon withdrawal as well as tolerance; widely: insistent compulsive use of known substances that are harmful to the user. Drug addiction is usually not a substance forming habit, it also includes things such as gambling, sex, video gaming, and even internet. All the same, the primary focus of society is still to do with drugs, tobacco and alcohol. Several characteristics of pathophysiology and epidemiology will be discussed together with the social implications that addiction causes as well as any ethical problems that lie with addiction and medical emergency service providers.

The addictive behavioral study is relatively new. Science just started to study behavioral addictiveness in the 1930. Prior to this, studies were being carried out by scientist on drug abuse that were plagued by misconception shadows as well as nature addiction. But with present day discoveries as well as information on how brain chemicals work and the methods of alteration, there is now a deeper understanding of alcohol and drug addiction. Drug addiction, according to Dr. Dryden-Edwards also referred to as chemical dependency or substance dependence, is an illness that is described by a destructive drug abuse pattern that leads to major problems which involve tolerance towards or substance withdrawal and other problems arising from substance use that could have implications to the sufferer, either by school performance, socially or in terms of work. More than 2.5% of humanity suffer from drug addiction at some point in their lives. Some of the commonly abused addictive substances are alcohol, anabolic steroids, amphetamines, cannabis, caffeine, ecstasy, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens, nicotine, phencyclidine, opiates, sedatives, anti-anxiety drugs, and or hypnotic. Despite the fact that alcohol and drug addiction is viewed as a mental health issue, there is no one particular determinant cause. However, several people believe that drug addiction and abuse is a genetic disease of which is a false fact. A person’s environment is cause for the development of a predisposition dependency drug.


The socially associated risk factors of drug addiction and drug abuse encompass the male gender, between the age ranges of 18 and 44 years, heritage of Native American persons, low socioeconomic status as well as the marital status of the unmarried. State statistics reveal that residents from the western U.S are more at risk to substance dependency as well as abuse. While males are very prone to alcoholism development, females seem more vulnerable to alcoholism at fairly lower amounts of alcohol consumption, this is because females have a much lower body mass as compared to males. The combined medical, criminal, economical, as well as the social implications costs American taxpayer more than half a trillion dollars annually. Each year drug and alcohol abuses contributes to 100,000 American deaths, with tobacco contributes approximately 440,000 deaths annually. Individuals of all ages suffer the damaging consequences of drug as well as alcohol addiction and abuse. Babies can get affected while within the mother’s womb if the mother is to engage in drug or alcohol use, which as a result causes defects in birth as well as slows down the intellectual development in the later years of the child. As for Adolescents, they usually perform poorly in school and usually drop out while they are abusing drugs. Adolescent girls stand the risk of having unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and violence. In addition, parents and adults are also affected, usually by having their cognitive abilities clouded. With all the vast exposure, the stage has easily been set for the next generation to simply step into the addictive lifestyle.


Drug addiction primarily affects the brain, but also affects the flow of a person’s organ systems. Drugs as well as mind changing substances which can be abused usually target the body’s natural system of reward either willingly or unwillingly causing entire euphoric effects for the drug user. These effects arise from the dopamine, which is a regulated neurotransmitter movement, emotion, cognition, motivation and pleasure feelings. The release of Dopamine is naturally rewarded to the body for natural behaviors as well as initiations for the cycle to repeat the behavior all over. The dopamine neurotransmitter fills the reward system that is often concealed in restricted amounts from routine activities such as sex or eating. The brain perceives this as a life-sustaining action as a result of the activated reward system. On introducing the chemical substance within a person’s system and the euphoric effects are realized, a person’s brain takes note of several significant happening events and teaches itself to do this action repeatedly until it is a habit. The consumption of illicit drugs can cause an individual to impulsively act when the brain’s reasoning system would normally delay or prevent a form of given action.

This reasoning system is circumvented, hence leading to the undesired action that can possibly have negative consequences on the drug user’s life. However, several drug effects as well as chemical substances are at times euphoric, and other times the substance causes depression, suicidal thoughts, and paranoia. Continuation of the drug causes the brain to become acclimatized to the surplus of dopamine within the reward system. This then leads to the decrease of dopamine release as well as the dopamine receptors numbers within the system itself. In turn, this affects the user’s ability to attain the desired effects of the drug usage. This response from the person’s brain causes the person to try and reactivate the receptors by adding the dosage or amount of the drug in order to attain the same dopamine high. This effect process is referred to as a tolerance. Long term drug abuse causes changes to occur to other systems parts within the brain. The neurotransmitter glutamate of which is a part of the reward systems can be changed and hence cause learning inability. When the brain reaches the maximum level of glutamate, it causes an off balance and the brain tries to compensate, of which as a result affects the drug user’s cognitive ability. Once the brain accustoms to the drug effects, dependence is made and drug abuse cessation causes a result known as withdrawal. While most withdrawal signs are very uncomfortable for the drug addict, there are several serious signs such as seizures, strokes, myocardial infraction, delirium tremens, and hallucinations.

Social, Ethical issues as well as the impact on emergency medical services (EMS)

The consequences of drug abuse and addiction are very evident in an individual social life. The addictions destructive behavior affects every area of their personal life, right from the genesis of the drug abuse. The addictions symptoms from a physical perspective include alteration of sleeping patterns as well as eating habits, which in turn contribute to both weight gain as well as loss. Frequent drug abuse tends to lead to failure in meeting important responsibilities at work, school or even home. Other drug addiction effects include domestic violence, family disintegration, child abuse, employment loss, and failure in school. People with addiction engage in risk taking, and with alterations in the reward system within the brain, the drug users expect positive reactions prior to them taking the substance that would satisfy their needs for the risks they take. Impulse control is difficult when drug choice is available to people with addiction. As a result this fuels the addiction even more.

The effect of the emergency medical service is immense. The calls from addiction range from medical overdosage to trauma. The emergency medical provider’s obligation in response to overdosed patients requires paramedics to find out how much as well as what the patients took, and what is the correct medication to give in order to reverse the condition that is being experienced by the patient or drug user. With the various emergency responses comes danger, with the possibility of violent outbreaks by the addicts or users. Therefore, paramedics must be aware of their surroundings while handling the patients. In addition, patients who experience withdrawals tend to hallucinate a complete event as well as incorporate the paramedics, thus causing the patient to react violently towards the care provider. Drug addiction is a very serious condition that can be considered as a psychiatric problem, of which needs to be treated with a sure diligence as well as suspicion.

Within the realm of the emergency medical service, the response rate of addiction is not considered an emergency condition. The incident will arise if an addict is experiencing withdrawal violent signs or has substance overdose, and the patient would appear in a state of agitation or even unconsciousness. There is no prearranged method in handling a patient that is experiencing problems related to addiction. The key element is in treating the symptoms of the patient. All patients require supplementary oxygen through non rebreathe if tolerance is acceptable. To assist in flushing out a normal saline of infusion, obtaining of intravenous access is a must. Should a patient or addict be in a state of agitation or seizure, administration of a sedative is required, such as versed or valium. Caution must be taken when administrating benzodiazepines because of the risks regarding failure or respiratory depression is present. Should a patient experiencing an opiate overdose as well as low breathing, Narcan 0.4 – 2 milligrams must be administered, but caution must be observed when administering the drug of which is done slowly in order for the patient to breathe sufficiently so as to sustain life. Should breathing and airway problems continue then intubation must be considered in order to secure the airway of the patient. Quick transport with due concern is suggested in order for the patient to be evaluated so as to have the hospital staff commence detoxification.


The drug abuse and addiction world is unforgiving and harsh, especially if an addict or user is unwilling to leave it behind. A number of people claim that the addiction is all within the head, and research has verified this notion. The brain effects from a formed learned pattern is similarly rewarded to such activities like drinking or eating.

A lot of people do not comprehend as to how and why other people become drug addicts. It is wrongfully presumed that drug users have no willpower or moral principles and cannot stop using drugs simply by choosing to alter their behavior. The reality is, drug addiction and abuse is a complex illness, and quitting it requires lots of good intentions. In actual fact, because drugs alter the brain in ways that raise drug abuse compulsiveness, quitting becomes hard, even for the willing addicts.

A lot of drug users also believe that they can control their drug abuse and addiction. Having a drug habit is a costly affair that leads to loss of belongings, money and even self-esteem. Curiosity is what drives some people abuse drugs, while others it is peer pressure, and another group of people become addicts of prescription drugs. While drug abuse normally leads to drug addiction, overcoming drug addiction is no easy task. So the question begs, is this drug abuse or is this drug addiction? These are two completely separate paths that lead to the same depressing outcome. In addition, the consequences of drug abuse as well as drug addiction become noticeable after a given period of time whereby compulsiveness and violence take over, furthermore, the physical toll which includes illness and depression at times could be debilitating. Therefore, the only method to reducing drug abuse as well as addiction is through educating or sensitizing the public. Avoidance is viewed as the best prevention.