Average Serum Half Life Of Antimicrobial Agents And Choice Of Antibiotics For Common Infections

Antibiotics or antimicrobial agents can have specific and different functions. Hence, their specificity in administration in patients is very important and vital in drug therapy. Based on Wikipedia, Serum half life of a drug, or also The biological half-life or elimination half life of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (for example a metabolite, drug,signalling molecule, radioactive nuclide, or other substance) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity. Here are some antimicrobial agents and their serum half Life in different routes of administration.

In order of the routes of administration, the first is oral, the second is intramuscular and the third is intravenous, all in hours.
1. Benzyl penicillin: 4.0, 0.5, 0.15
2. Phenoxymethyl penicillin: 2.0, _, _
3. Procaine penicillin: _, 18.0, _
4. Ampicillin: 5.0, 4.0, 1.5
5. Erythromycin (appropriate preparation): 3.0, 2.5, 1.0
6. Tetracycline: 8.5, _, 8.5
7. Doxycycline: 20.0, _, 18.0
8. Chloramphenicol: 3.5, 6.0, 3.5
9. Rifampicin: 3.3, _, 3.3
10. Trimethoprim: 12.0, _, 10.0
11. Sifamethoxazole: 12.0, _, 10.0

Choice of antibiotics for common infections

Here are some drugs which are the best choices to their corresponding diseases stated here. The first drug indicates the proven value (conventional antibiotics) while the second drug indicates the possible value of cephalosporins.

Respiratory tract infections

1. Pharyngitis: Benzylpenicillin, Cephradine
2. Otitis media: Amoxycillin, Cefaclor
3. Necrotising otitis: Ticarcillin, Cefsulodin, Cefrazidime
4. Pneumonia (Streptococcus Pneumonia): Benzylpenicillin, First generation cephalosporins
5. H. influenzae: Ampicillin, (cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cephamandole)
6. Staphylococcus aureus: (Nafcillin, cloxacillin) (cephalothin, cefazolin)
7. Klebsiella: Cefazolin, (cefotaxime, moxalactam)
8. Pseudomonas: Ticarcillin, ceftazidime
9. Anaerobic organisms: (penicillin, clindamycin); (cefoxitin, moxalactam)

urinary tract infections

1. Domiciliary: Ampicillin
2. Hospital-acquired entero-bacteriaceae: Aminoglycosides, (cefotaxime, moxalactam)
3. Pseudomonas: Aminoglycosides, ceftazidime


1. Neonatal: (Ampicillin, gentamicin), (Cefotaxime, moxalactam + ampicillin)
2. Strptococcal Pneumoniae: Benzylpenicillin, Cefotaxime
3. N. Meningitidis: benzylpenicillin, cefotaxime
4. H. Influenzae: (ampicilin, chloramphenicol), (Cefotaxime, moxalactam)
5. Enterobacteriaceae: Aminoglycosides, (Cefotaxime, moxalactam)

Bone and Joint infections

1. Stapjylococcus aureus: (Nafcillin, cloxacillin), cefazolin
2. Enterobacteriaceae: Aminoglycoside, (Cefotaxime, moxalactam)
3. Pseudomonas: (Ticarcillin + aminoglycosides), (Cefsulodin, Ceftazidime)

Diarrhoeal diseases

1. Shigella, salmonella and campylobacter: Ampicillin, None

Gynaecological infections

1. Endometritis, salpingitis: (Clindamycin + gentamicin), (Cefoxitin, cefotaxime, moxalactam)

sexually transmitted diseases

1. Gonorrhoea: Penicillin, (Cefoxitin, Cefotaxime)
2. Intra abdominal infections: (Clindamycin + gentamicin), (cefoxitin, cefotaxime, moxalactam)


1. Home acquired: (Ampicillin + aminoglycosides, Ticarcillin + aminoglycosides), Moxalactam.

In most cases a combined drug therapy is for efficiency of drug to fighting the organisms involved. And also, the group of drugs in one bracket indicates drugs for a particular value. Just as stated earlier, the first value is for the proven values (conventional antibiotics) and hence, if the bracket is the first, then the drugs represents the conventional antibiotics best for that particular disease. But if the bracket is the second, then the drugs in it represent the possible value of cephalosporins.

According to Wikipedia, Cephalosporins are a class of ²-lactam antibiotics originally derived from Acremonium, which was previously known as “Cephalosporium”.
Together with cephamycins they constitute a subgroup of ²-lactam antibiotics called cephems.

What Do You Know About

The Key Benefits of Continuing Education for X-Ray Technologies

In the next decade, we expect that the job market for the X-ray technologists to be better. X-ray is a way to diagnose and know what people are suffering from and since there are many people who are sick, it means that the field require many specialties. These specialists need to have advanced skills which they are going to make it easier to diagnose and hence, topradiologyzine.doodlekit.com/home”>x-ray continuing education is there for such people. Make sure you visit this link for you to know why it is important for you to stay safe in this career. Have a look at the ways which you have to benefit from continuing education for x-ray technologies.

Through continuing education for x-ray technologies, you get a chance for you to renew your license and also certification. Through this education, you shall be prepared well for the periodic evaluation ahead. Hence, you need to check it out for you to be able to manage to renew your license or certification. You be able to manage the continuing education for x-ray technologies also through online platforms. Assessments are there for you after every 10 years. Also, beware that there are some requirements for you to meet them.

Also, through continuing education for x-ray technologies, you be furthering your career in the medical field. Make sure you are able to manage to do this service perfectly as per the demand of your career and not forgetting that technology is changing. Since there are new fluoroscopes, you need to consider also fluoroscopy ce. Also, continuing education for x-ray technologies give you a chance for you to advance in the interest that you have in this field. Therefore, you should not ignore the power of continuing education for x-ray technologies.

Read more here for you to know about the new implementations in the radiology sector. Hence, if you want to keep up with these advancements, then continuing education for x-ray technologies are here for you. You have a chance to get advance knowledge. Also, this is a better way for you to remain competitive in the job market.

Also, continuing education for x-ray technologies is important if you want to raise the value of your image in the medical field. This link explain to you how it is possible for you to improve the image which you have by considering advancements in education. For these reasons, you now know very well the importance of continuing education for x-ray technologies and since many centers are there to facilitate this, you need to check it out.]]>

Getting To The Point –

How To Sell A Home Faster

Life presents circumstances which force property owners and investors to sell their houses quickly. Property owners sometimes find themselves in pressing financial emergencies, risk of foreclosure or the need to relocate to another place due to the nature of their work hence the need to sell the house faster. Property experts know that selling houses often take several weeks and if you are in need of quick money, it can really be quite inconveniencing. These tips help sell the property faster.

Enhance the curb appeal of your property to make it look as impressive as possible potential buyers coming to see the house. If the home has any worn-out paints, repainting it ahead of marketing and making the sale is recommended. Make sure that the compound is well maintained to improve the appearance of the house. As the saying goes, there is no first impression and that means you need to convince the potential homeowner the first time they view the house.

Look for a competent realtor who has been operating in the market where you intend to sell the house. Realtors are widely connected with other property agents and have contacts of potential buyers which means when you engage them; you have a high chance of selling the house faster.
Most of the time potential house buyers work with realtors to help them find a home that meets their different specifications. When people are selling homes they usually engage such realtors, and that means when you hire the real estate agent, they take advantage of these customers who be interested in purchasing the house. The other good thing about hiring realtor is that they engage other home agents who work together as a team to market and sell the house quickly.

Listing the house on reputable online platforms is one other way of selling the property in a shorter time. Take good photos of your house, adding a brief description and upload it. It is now a trend for most people to use the internet when looking to purchase products and that means you can reach more buyers much faster by posting the house online; check it out in this article on localrealestatefirm.cabanova.com/advantages-of-selling-your-house-to-we-buy-houses-company.html”>Mike Otranto and learn more about cash for houses in Raleigh.

To quickly sell your home, consider pricing it well and even slightly lower than prevailing market price especially if you are in an emergency. The realtor also help estimate the price of the house so that you can decide on its selling the price. Talk to your neighbors, acquaintances, and friends about the sale of the house, and you might be surprised at how quickly you sell it; read more now on how we buy houses Raleigh.]]>